The Medical Board of California has asked the court twice before to yank Murray’s license, to no avail. But minutes after ordering Murray to stand trial, Judge Pastor granted the request.
It’s a devastating blow to Murray, because he needs to practice to make enough money to pay his legal team. Murray’s team believes the move is designed to take away his right to defend himself in the manslaughter trial.
Dr. Conrad Murray was just ordered to stand trial in the death of Michael Jackson.
Judge Michael Pastor ruled there is sufficient evidence to warrant a manslaughter trial.
In his closing statement, Deputy District Attorney David Walgren told the judge, “It was not Michael Jackson’s time to go. Michael Jackson is not here today because of the negligence and reckless acts of Dr. Murray.”
Walgren said Murray cared more about covering up evidence than helping MJ.
Judge Pastor’s ruling follows a 6-day preliminary hearing in which more than 20 witnesses were called.
If convicted Murray faces a maximum of 4 years in prison.
LAPD Robbery Homicide Detective Orlando Martinez testified about an interview he conducted with Dr. Murray two days after MJ died. Martinez said Murray told him the night before Jackson died he was having trouble sleeping. Murray said he was trying to ween Jackson off of Propofol — a drug he was giving MJ almost every night for two months.
Murray told Martinez he was giving Jackson a variety of other drugs, beginning sometime after 1AM, to no avail. Jackson then said if he didn’t get to sleep he would cancel rehearsal.
Murray said he was feeling “pressure” from MJ to give him something to help him sleep, and Jackson was begging for Propofol. Murray claims he gave him a reduced dose, with Michael’s help. As TMZ has reported many times before, Murray said MJ liked to “push in the Propofol himself and that other doctors let him do it.”
Michael Jackson may have drank himself to death by consuming a juice box laced with Propofol — at least that’s what Conrad Murray‘s defense team suggested in court today.
Murray’s attorney, J. Michael Flanagan, was questioning a Senior Criminalist from the L.A. County Coroner’s Office about the 70 grams of fluid found in MJ’s stomach at the time of the autopsy … fluid that tested positive for traces of Propofol.
Flanagan noted the presence of a juice box on MJ’s nightstand … and asked if it had been tested for Propofol … raising the possibility that MJ was sippin’ on the anesthetic shortly before he died.
The criminalist testified he had not tested the juice box.
So what’s Flanagan’s point? He might be suggesting that MJ was secretly self-administering his Propofol … which would support Murray’s defense theory that MJ accidentally caused his own overdose.
Dr. Murray Ordered a Boatload of Propofol for MJ
Updated 1/10/11 at 12:05pm
Tim Lopez, a pharmacist at Applied Pharmacy Servicesin Las Vegas, said beginning on April 6, 2009, Dr. Murray began ordering large quantities of Propofol. On that date, he ordered 10 single dose vials.
Murray, who had the drugs sent to his girlfriend’s Santa Monica home where he was living, also ordered boxes of the drug on April 28 — 4 boxes and each of the boxes had 10 100ml vials.
Later that month, Murray ordered 20 vials of midazolam and 20 vials of lorazepam.
On May 12, Murray ordered 4 boxes of Propofol, along with 2 trays of midazolam.
On June 10, Murray ordered 4 boxes of Propofol, and 2 20ml Propofol.
In all, Murray ordered 255 vials of Propofol in the two months — including 130 vials of Propofol in 100ml doses and another 125 vials of Propofol in 20ml vials.
Judge: Murray’s iPhone Admissible as Evidence
Updated 1/10/11 at 10:35am
Judge Michael Pastor ruled this morning that recently obtained data from Dr. Conrad Murray‘s iPhone is admissible as evidence.
Murray’s attorney, Ed Chernoff, referenced the items in question … a few voicemails and 12 screenshots. He was not more specific.
The prosecution has used phone records to create a timeline showing what Murray did the day Michael Jackson died.
1/7/2011 3:10 PM PST by TMZ Staff
Murray Lawyer Paints Picture — Michael Killed Himself
Dr. Conrad Murray’s lawyers laid the groundwork for their defense — Michael Jackson delivered the fatal shot of Propofol to himself.
Murray’s lawyer, J. Michael Flanagan, asked Coroner investigator Elissa Fleak two questions 1) Was the IV bag fingerprinted? and 2) Was it possible for Jackson to reach the syringes from the bed?
As TMZ first reported, the defense will argue that Jackson became frustrated when he couldn’t sleep that day and gave himself the fatal shot of Propofol when Murray was out of the room.
An investigator for the L.A. County Coroner’s Office testified her office found 12 bottles of Propofol in Michael Jackson’s home.
Elissa Fleak says two bottles were in the bedroom where MJ died, and the other 10 were in a nearby closet.
One of the Propofol bottles found in the room by the nightstand was empty.
In addition to the Propofol, investigators found a pharmacy full of drugs, including lorazepam, diazepam, temazepam, trazodone, flomax, clonazepam, tizanidine, hydrocodone, lidocaine and benoquin.
Also found … used syringes and needles, as well as a box of unopened hypodermic needles, IV catheters and vials.
Murray’s Other GF Describes Deliveries, No Mention of Propofol
Updated 1/07/11 at 12:15pm
Although the contents of the packages were not mentioned in court, TMZ first reported back in October 2009 … those packages were shipped from Murray’s pharmacy in Las Vegas and contained Propofol.
Alvarez was also one of the people that received a phone call from Dr. Murray on the day Jackson died — but the prosecution did not question her about the call. Murray’s team declined to cross-examine.
SMOKING GUN IN MICHAEL JACKSON’S DEATH
Updated 1/07/11 at 10:35am
But there is only one call in the phone records from Murray to Sade, and that’s at 11:51 AM PT.
Sade says Murray was asking her how she was doing and she started talking about her day. She spoke for a few minutes and realized Murray wasn’t on the phone anymore.
Sade then said she heard commotion, as if the phone was in his pocket, and heard “coughing and voices.”
Sade estimates the entire call lasted 5 minutes.
The 911 call wasn’t made until 12:21 PM PT, which means — if Murray did indeed first realize MJ was in distress at around 11:55 AM PT — there was a long delay in sounding the alarm.
People vs. Dr. Conrad Murray
1/6/2011 2:45 PM PST by TMZ Staff
UCLA Docs — Michael Was DOA
Dr. Richelle Cooper testified when Jackson arrived at UCLA there was “no signs of life.”
Dr. Cooper added Murray was not forthcoming about the drugs administered to MJ. Cooper says Murray copped to giving Michael lorazepam, but made no mention of Propofol.
And this was interesting. Cooper says MJ weighed 136 lbs.
Dr. Thao Nguyen testified Dr. Murray denied giving Michael any sedatives or narcotics, other than the lorazepam.
Two reps from the phone company testified in the hours surrounding the revelation that Michael Jacksonwas lifeless in bed, Murray was texting and calling lots of people, but never called 911.
The records show Murray was sending and receiving multiple texts. Two particularly interesting ones at 12:03 and 12:04 PM … the person Murray was texting was in Texas.
It’s unclear if the texts had anything to do with the two women in Murray’s office who went to a storage facility to retrieve boxes.
Murray also sent data at 12:15 and 12:18 and another text at 12:53.
Murray also called a number of people, including his girlfriend, Nicole Alvarez, but the only record shows 1:08 PM. This is inconsistent with what law enforcement tells TMZ — that he was on the phone with Alvarez just after 12 noon and when Murray realized MJ was in distress he dropped the phone.
EMT: Murray Denied Giving MJ Drugs
Updated 1/06/11 at 10:35am
Another paramedic testified … Dr. Conrad Murray denied giving Michael Jackson drugs as the singer lay lifeless in his bedroom.
Martin Blount said when he walked into MJ’s room Murray was sweating profusely. Blount says Murray told EMTs he waited only one minute before calling 911.
But another paramedic testified earlier he believed Murray waited between 20 minutes to an hour to call 911.
Green comments are mine
Kenny Ortega (Producer/Director – This Is It)
Michael Amir( Michael’s Bodyguards)
Faheen Muhammed (Michael’s Bodyguard)
Court convened at 9am.
Reports have Murray as usual been ‘shepharded’ in through the back door and arriving in court looking remarkably relaxed – as he continued to be throughout the whole proceedings.
Fans remained outside behaved in a respectful and dignified manner as the family filed in.
Deputy District Attorney, David Walgren said he will rely on Murray’s statements to police, as well as text messages, phone records and expert testimony to show the doctor should stand trial.
He said evidence will show Murray waited at least 21 minutes to call 911 and ordered a bodyguard to help him clean up evidence before summoning help. In the most favorable scenario, Walgren said, Murray waited at least nine minutes before calling paramedics.
He faulted the doctor in opening statements for performing CPR on Jackson with one hand on his bed, rather than a hard surface as is generally required.
He also stated that “ fabulous” rehearsal two days before his death and was set to go to London in a few days.”
Walgren also plans to call several experts whom he said would testify, “there are a number of actions displayed by Dr. Murray that show an extreme deviation from the standard of care.”
The prosecutor also said he would call a bodyguard who would testify that Murray ordered him to collect items from Jackson’s bedroom
The first witness the prosecution called was “This Is It” producer/director Kenny Ortega
Choreographer Kenny Ortega testified that he was summoned to Jackson’s home a day after letting the superstar skip rehearsal because he seemed sick.
Dr. Conrad Murray and others suggested Jackson should not have been sent home because he was physically and emotionally fine,Ortega testified, adding he was told not to try to be Jackson’s doctor or psychiatrist.
Later in the hearing, Ortega testified that Jackson had gone home early from rehearsals on June 19.
“He didn’t look well at all,” Ortega testified. “Michael was chilled and soft-spoken. … He wasn’t in the kind of condition to be at rehearsal.”
Ortega also said Jackson appeared lost.
“It was scary. I couldn’t put my finger on it,” Ortega said. “I said, ‘Michael, is this the best place for you to be or do you want to go home and be with your family?’ He said, ‘Would you be OK with that?’ I said, ‘OK,’ and he left.”
The next morning, Ortega said, he was called to Jackson’s home, where he was confronted by Murray, Jackson, the star’s manager Frank DiLeo, and Randy Phillips, head of AEG, the company producing Jackson’s “This is It” comeback tour.
“It quickly became clear that the meeting was about me,” Ortega said. “Dr. Murray was upset that I had sent Michael home the night before and didn’t allow him to rehearse.” (Really, the DOCTOR was upset MJ was sent home??? LOL Circus…)
Ortega, who later directed the Jackson concert film “This Is It” based on rehearsal footage, said the pop star was in good spirits throughout most of the rehearsals and was excited about the progress being made in preparation for the London shows.
He recalled his last conversation with Jackson.
“Michael said, ‘I know you love me and care about me. You don’t have to worry about me. I’m fine,’ and he gave me a big hug,” Ortega said.
On cross-examination, defense attorney Ed Chernoff asked Ortega if he had ever seen anyone having withdrawals from drugs, and the witness said he had not.
MICHAEL AMIR WILLIAMS
Another witness, Jackson’s personal assistant Michael Amir Williams, described Murray calling him on the day the superstar died and frantically asking him to get help from bodyguards for Jackson, who was in a bedroom
Williams stated he received a frantic voicemail from Murray at 12:13 PM on June 25, 2009. Williams said Murray’s VM said, “Where are you? Get here right away, hurry.”
Murray told him the singer had a “bad reaction” and that immediate help was needed, but didn’t ask him to call 911, Williams said.
Williams says he then called Alberto Alvarez, MJ’s security guard, and asked Alvarez to walk to the front door. Williams says he heard Murray’s voice in the background, then Alvarez hung up
Williams added that staff were never allowed upstairs.
Williams described the chaotic scene at the mansion and hospital and recalled the heartbreaking moment when DiLeo told Jackson’s children their father was dead. Williams said he and Murray and everyone else were crying. He also added that Murray added to the confusion by immediately contradicting Dileo.
He went on to say that at one point just after Michael had been pronounced dead, Murray insisted to Williams that he was going to go back to the house to get some ‘cream’ that “Michael wouldn’t want people to see”. Williams immediately contacted staff at the house to ‘lock it down’. Also whilst chaos reigned at the hospital the Murray was requesting Williams to get him food!
One of Michael’s other bodyguards, said he and and guard Alberto Alvarez saw Murray crouched next to Jackson’s bed “in a panicked state asking, ‘Does anyone know CPR?'”
“I looked at Alberto because we knew Dr. Murray was a heart surgeon, so we were shocked,” Muhammed said
When defense lawyer Ed Chernoff asked if perhaps Murray was only asking for help because he was tired, Muhammed said “The way that he asked it is as if he didn’t know CPR.”
Jackson appeared to be dead at that time, with his “eyes open and his mouth open, just laying there,”
Prosecutor David Walgren earlier said that Murray used “ineffectual CPR with one hand while the patient was prone on a soft bed.” Two hands with the patient prone on a hard surface is the proper method, he said.
Muhammed, the third witness on the opening day of the hearing, said he never saw Murray performing CPR on Jackson before paramedics arrived and carried him to Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center.
Jackson’s two oldest children, Prince and Paris, were at their father’s bedroom door as the drama unfolded just after noon on June 25, 2009, Muhammed said.
“Paris was on the floor on her hands and knees and she was just crying,” he said.
The children would learn two hours later that their father had died when Dr. Murray and Jackson manager Frank Dileo talked to them in a hospital room.
The session ended at approx 16.30pm. To be reconvened on 5/1/11 at 09.30am
Travis Payne was also present.
Green comments are mine.
With Michael Jackson lying lifeless in a bed, his doctor ordered a security guard to remove an IV bag of medication resembling the anesthetic blamed in the pop star’s death before calling for an ambulance, the guard testified Wednesday. (Right. Like I’d trust ANYBODY to remove evidence of MY guilt. Don’t buy it…)
Alberto Alvarez told a Superior Court judge deciding whether there is enough evidence to try Dr. Conrad Murray for involuntary manslaughter that the physician first told him the singer needed an ambulance urgently, but then instructed him to gather up medical vials and an IV bag in larger bags. (PROPOFOL in a HOME would be more then sufficient evidence of manslaughter)
“I noticed that inside (the IV bag), there was like a bottle … and then I noticed that at the bottom of the bag there was a milk-like substance,” Alvarez testified. The surgical anesthetic propofol –- which the coroner said caused Jackson’s death — is a white liquid administered intravenously.
Murray, 57, acknowledged giving the singer propofol as a sleep aid in an interview with police, authorities have said.
He said that when he asked Murray what had happened, the doctor said Jackson “had a bad reaction.”
But soon after that, Murray grabbed a handful of medical vials from Jackson’s nightstand and told Alvarez to place them in a bag, the guard testified. He repeated the instruction for the IV bag containing the white substance, but did not tell him to remove another IV bag, he said.
Only then, Alvarez testified, did the doctor order him to call for an ambulance. (So Alvarez is quite stupid? He wouldn’t call for an ambulance himself? Needed instructions to do so? Again, I don’t buy it.)
Paramedics and emergency room doctors are expected to testify later in the hearing that Murray concealed his use of propofol from them as they worked to save Jackson’s life.
Prosecutors have said other medical experts will testify that Murray did not have proper monitoring equipment for administering propofol, a drug that can suppress the respiratory system.
Alvarez said he did not see any heart or blood pressure monitors in the room, but Murray clipped a monitoring device to Jackson’s finger after paramedics were called.
Deputy Dist. Atty. David Walgren played the 911 call for Judge Michael Pastor.
When Alvarez told the emergency operator that the stricken man’s personal physician was there, the operator expressed surprise.
“Oh, you have a doctor there?” the operator said, adding the doctor would be the “higher authority.”
Alvarez said before they arrived, Murray asked him and another security guard if they knew how to perform CPR. Prosecutors have said Murray was doing it incorrectly by using one hand and on a soft mattress. (yeah, OK, a cardiologist, no less. I don’t believe a word of any of this. Doesn’t make sense.)
Alvarez said the 911 operator told them to move Jackson to the floor to administer CPR. There, Alvarez said, he did chest compressions while Murray gave the singer mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.
“After the second time, he gave a breath, he came up and said, ‘You know, this is the first time I give mouth to mouth, but I have to do it, he’s my friend,'” Alvarez said.
In the spectator’s gallery, Janet Jackson, the singer’s sister, shook her head and held the bridge of her nose with her fingers. Jackson family members and friends filled an entire row in the courtroom for the dramatic testimony.
His mother, Katherine, dabbed away tears as Alvarez recalled Jackson’s daughter, Paris, rushing into the bedroom where her father lay stricken and screaming, “Daddy!”
Alvarez, his own voice choking with emotion, recalled Murray shouting, “Get them out! Get them out! Don’t let them see their father like this.”
The cardiologist, who was tending to Jackson during a comeback attempt, has pleaded not guilty and said through his lawyers that he did nothing that should have caused Jackson’s death.(Giving propofol in a non-monitored environment , however small the does, CAN cause death. You never know how the patient will react to it, so you have to have the patient monitored at all times. In a HOSPITAL!)
Under cross-examination, Alvarez acknowledged he had not told police in two initial interviews that Murray had ordered him to remove potential evidence.
“You didn’t think it was suspicious?” asked defense lawyer Ed Chernoff.
“Apparently not, sir,” Alvarez said.
“You thought he was packing up to go to the hospital, right?” the lawyer asked.
“Yes, sir,” Alvarez replied.
Chernoff also questioned Alvarez about his relationship with the Jackson family, which briefly employed him as a guard for the late singer’s children, and his discussions with other Jackson staffers, with whom he shares an attorney.
Alvarez acknowledged that he had refused to speak to a defense investigator who had sought to interview him, but that in a police interview he had said he might sell his story to the media at a later date. (yeah, MONEY….)
People vs. Dr. Conrad Murray
1/5/2011 4:35 PM PST by TMZ Staff
EMT: Murray Wouldn’t Accept That Michael Was Dead
An EMT continued testifying after a recess, stating all of the emergency workers at Michael Jackson’s house knew the singer was dead, but Dr. Murray wouldn’t “call it.”
Richard Senneff testified about facts that TMZ has been reporting for more than a year — that when paramedics arrived at MJ’s house, there was no sign of life and no chance of revival. Nevertheless, Senneff testified Dr. Murray claimed to feel a pulse and, as the senior medical person on scene, refused to pronounce MJ dead.
Murray ordered the EMTs to take MJ to the hospital. Senneff said the ride was “unbelievable … like the Rose Parade. People running down the street, taking pictures, random cars passing the ambulance. It was insane.”
Once at UCLA, Senneff said Murray was “spinning … moving around, nervous, sweating, multitasking.”
On cross examination, Ed Chernoff got Senneff to admit … Jackson’s skeletal, frail frame, along with his black/bluish feet, were signs of a drug addict.
Updated 1/05/11 at 3:03pm
An EMT who arrived at Michael Jackson’s house 4 minutes after the 911 call says Michael was dead when he arrived, and it looked like he had been dead for a long time before Dr. Conrad Murray called 911.
Richard Senneff testified when he arrived at MJ’s house and saw MJ, he looked like a hospice patient — extremely frail.
Senneff says he believes Murray must have waited at least 20 minutes before calling 911, based on the condition of the body. MJ’s EKG was flatlined.
And Senneff said, when he asked Murray if MJ had been taking meds, all Murray volunteered was lorazepam (Ativan). Murray never uttered a peep about Propofol.
Murray told Senneff Jackson had been “dehydrated.”
MJ Cook to Prince: “Something May be Wrong with Your Dad”
Updated 1/05/11 at 2:58pm
Kai Chase, Michael Jackson’s cook, testified after Michael stopped breathing, Dr. Murray came downstairs in a panic and summoned Prince … and Chase told the boy, “Something may be wrong with your dad.”
Chase says it was evident there was an emergency and the housekeepers started crying.
Chase had testified MJ was on an extremely healthy diet, dining on seared ahi tuna salad for lunch the day before he died.
She found it odd that she prepared Tuscan white bean soup for MJ and Murray the night before Jackson died, but when she came to work the next morning the soup was untouched.
MJ’s Security Guard: Murray Said Hide The Bottles
Updated 1/05/11 at 10:55am
Alberto Alvarez, a bodyguard who says he was MJ’s Director of Logistics, testified Dr. Conrad Murray instructed him to remove bottles from Michael’s bedroom — along with an IV bag with a milky-white substance, before calling 911.
Alvarez says he walked into MJ’s bedroom sometime after 12:17 PM and saw Michael laying motionless. He says Murray told him Michael had “an allergic reaction,” then ordered him to collect a bag of bottles and put them in a bag.
And this is big. Alvarez says Murray then “instructed me to remove the IV bag from the IV stand.”
For the record, law enforcement believes the milky-white substance in the bag was Propofol.
Alvarez says there was a second IV bag — which we know contained saline — and Murray told him to leave it there.
Alvarez says only after the bottles and bag were collected did Murray tell him to call 911.
UPDATE: During cross examination, Ed Chernoff, Murray’s lawyer, got Alvarez to admit he never told the cops about Murray ordering him to remove the bottles. Alvarez also admitted he may sell his story.
Janet Jackson Arrives at Court
Updated 1/05/11 at 9:40am
MJ Bodyguard — Murray Asked, “Does Anyone Know CPR?”
Updated 1/04/11 at 2:55pm
Faheem Muhammad, one of Michael Jackson‘s bodyguards, just testified he was in Michael’s room after Murray noticed MJ stopped breathing. Faheem told the prosecutor, Murray was on his knees doing compressions on MJ in a panicked state, when he turned to Faheem and another bodyguard and asked, “Does anyone in the room know CPR?”
Faheem recalled how Prince and Paris were near the room and Paris was on her hands and knees crying. The nanny took them away.
Faheem also said after Michael was pronounced dead at UCLA, Dr. Murray told him he was hungry and wanted to leave. Faheem said he told Murray to eat at the hospital, but Murray left.
On cross-examination, Ed Chernoff got Faheem to admit Murray spoke with MJ’s family and police before leaving.
Michael Jackson’s Assistant Testifies
Updated 1/03/11 at 12:30pm
The prosecution began to paint a picture of Dr. Conrad Murray’s reckless actions on the night MJ passed away … by calling to the stand the Jackson assistant Murray telephoned before he called 911.
Michael Amir Williams testified that he received a frantic voicemail from Murray at 12:13 PM on June 25, 2009. Williams said Murray’s VM said, “Where are you? Get here right away, hurry.”
Williams says he then called Alberto Alvarez, MJ’s security guard, and asked Alvarez to walk to the front door. Williams says he heard Murray’s voice in the background, then Alvarez hung up.
Williams said that later on at the hospital, Murray approached him and said Michael had some cream in his room that Murray knew MJ wouldn’t want the world to know about. Williams said he wanted someone to give him a ride back to MJ’s house to retrieve it.
Murray’s baby mama, Nicole Alvarez, was in court today — but ordered to return on Friday. Murray was on the phone with Alvarez when he realized MJ was in trouble.
Kenny Ortega Testifies
Updated 1/04/11 at 10:45am
Kenny Ortega, MJ’s producer/director for “This Is It,” was the first to testify, stating just days before MJ died, Dr. Murray was upset that Kenny sent MJ home from rehearsal on June 19. According to Ortega … Murray felt only he should make such decisions.
According to Ortega … Dr. Murray said during the June 20 meeting at MJ’s home that Michael was “physically and emotionally fine,” even though Ortega said MJ had the chills and was not well during the failed rehearsal the day before.
The June 20 meeting at MJ’s home is important for prosecutors, who claim it shows Murray did not care about MJ’s health.
And Ortega said June 23 and 24 were “two wonderful days of rehearsal” and that MJ was happy and healthy. The point — that Jackson wasn’t in distress the day before he died, and it was the Propofol that did him in.
Ortega testified, “He didn’t look well at all. Michael was chilled and soft-spoken … He wasn’t in the kind of condition to be at rehearsal.”
During cross examination, Ortega denied he read Michael “the riot act” during the June 20 meeting.
DA Opening Statement: MJ Already Dead
Updated 1/04/11 at 10:15am
Los Angeles County Prosecutor David Walgren began to lay out the case against Dr. Conrad Murray … saying in his opening statement that Michael Jackson was dead even before paramedics got to MJ’s home.
Walgren also told Judge Michael Pastor Murray tried to conceal the fact he had administered Propofol to Jackson — categorizing Murray’s actions as and “extreme deviation from the standard of care.”
Walgren said the evidence will show Murray ordered a bodyguard to help him clean up evidence and waited at least 20 minutes before he called 911. Once Jackson was taken to the hospital, Walgren said Murray still had not told anyone about the use of Propofol, saying, “Not a word was said about Propofol to the UCLA doctors.”
He also pointed out Murray performed CPR incorrectly — with one hand on his bed, rather than a hard surface.
Murray’s attorney, Ed Chernoff, declined to make an opening statement.
The first witness the prosecution will call is “This Is It” producer/director Kenny Ortega.
RECAP of TODAY